Brazil has achieved the target in reducing the proportion of its population who suffer from hunger. That target was set in September 2000, after a meeting among 189 nations, whereas they signed an agreement to fight against extreme poverty and other problems faced by humanity. The discussion resulted in the definition of 8 Millennial Development Goals (MDGs), which must have been reached by 2015. Although that time limit is over, the countries have renewed their commitment to continue their projects in maintaining the progress in order to adhere to those objectives.
The Report from the World Bank confirms that Brazil has practically eradicated extreme poverty. The document states that “from 2001 to 2013, the percentage of the population living in extreme poverty decreased from 10% to 4%” in the Country. “From 1990 to 2009, about 60% of Brazilian achieved a higher income level; as a total number of 25 million people left extreme or moderate poverty level. This means that one out of two people left poverty in Latin America and the Caribbean during that period”.
During the presentation of the 5th edition of the National Follow-up Report on the Millennial Development Goals prepared by the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA) and by the Planning Secretariat and the Strategic Investment of the of the Planning Ministry, Budget, and Administration, last year, when President Dilma Rousseff celebrated the results achieved by the Country related to income distribution. “We in fact have reduced inequality in Brazil. But we did not reduce it by taking it away from anybody, we reduced it by increasing the income growth among the poorest”, she emphasized.
Based on the Monitoring of the Indicators, available at the Millennium Development Portal (PDM), the majority of Brazilian states achieved the target regarding the reduction of at least half the proportion of the population who did not have safe drinking water accessible, and also a positive result was obtained related to the achievement of at least half of the population who did not have sewage and essential services accessible.
On the other hand, only the southern region of Brazil achieved the result of reducing the proportion of the population below the poverty level by half. The only state outside of the southern region that also achieved the positive result was Mato Grosso do Sul, in the central-western region.
More discrete satisfactory results were confirmed in the northern region of the Country, where at least three states, Amazonas, Pará, and Rondônia, achieved only 11 points of the requisites designated by the indicators. The other 12 states achieved from half to 2 of the indicator targets.
A award for the best administrative practice
Brazil transformed the opportunity of launching the National Follow- -up Report on the annual Millennium Development Goals at an event recognizing best administration practices in towns and civil society organizations that have contributed to the achievement of the Millennial Goals, with a direct impact in the improvement in the quality of life of the population and the social transformations in the Country.
The awards are selected by a jury of specialists, based on the contribution of each representation for the achievement of the MDGs; its innovative native; providing the possibility of making this a reference to other similar initiatives; the perspective of continuity or repeatability, as well as its integration with other policies; participation of the community; the existence of partnerships; and the maintenance of quality services rendered.
At the most recent edition of the awards, in 2014, the ODM Brasil (MDG Brazil) Awards 1,090 indications were given, including 804 organizations, and 286 city halls. Among the total number of registrations, 65 practices were pre-selected and visited on site by the Technical Committee, made up by members from the Institute for Applied Economic Research (IPEA) and ENAP, and 30 were granted the award. The Award was created in 2004 for the purpose of encouraging initiative, programs, and projects to contribute effectively to the adherence of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
The efforts to fight poverty in Africa
The countries in the African continent registered advances in the last 15 years related to the Millennium Goals. The majority of the nations introduced universal elementary education programs, advances in equality gender rights, and fighting against AIDS, besides the strategic development of the fight against tuberculosis and malaria.
According to the most recent report disclosed by the African Union, the United Nations, and the African Development Bank, among the twenty countries that made the most progress in putting into effect the Millennium Development Goals, 15 are in Africa. The United Nations Program Council, PNUD, praised Ruanda for its work in granted gender rights. As a result, the country now has one of the greatest number of women in the parliament.
Related to positive results in elementary education in African countries, progress has also been made by inserting school meals and decreasing the travel time between the students’ homes and school.
In spite of not achieving the rates on hunger, as defined in the Goals, the countries in Africa continue fighting against AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria, as there has been progress made in the last decade. According to the UN, even though the results were not achieved as defined in the Goals, the continent has made progress, for example, in the reduction of maternal mortality, which is over 40%.
Angola, on the other hand, achieved surprising results related to hunger. The report disclosed by the United Nations in 2014 reveals that the country registered decreases of 70% in the proportion of the population who suffered from hunger.
Based on the official document, the country of Angola, however, would exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), before 2015.
The report on “State of Food Insecurity in the World in 2014 (SOFI)” confirmed a positive trend as the global statistics on the decrease in the number of people who suffer from hunger is over 100 million in the last decade as compared to over 200 million from the period of 1990–1992.
Based on the data from SOFI 2014, São Tomé and Príncipe registered progress in their fight against hunger, reducing it to around 52% in the number of undernourished, and 70% in related terms for the results achieved in the Millennial Goals. Cabo Verde reported a drop of 40% in the percentage of undernourished population in the period from 1990 to 2014. However, currently, at least 100 thousand people still suffer from hunger. According to the report, Timor-Leste reported a drop of 36% in the percentage of hunger from 1990- 1992 to 2012–2014. But, in spite of the efforts, 29% of the population still is undernourished; the highest rates are in the countries of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP).
Published annually by the United Nations for Alimentary and Agriculture (FAO), International Fund for Agricultural Development (FIDA) and the Food Insecurity in the World (PAM), and the report stated that the number of people who suffer from hunger dropped from 842 million from 2011 to 2013 to about 805 million from 2012 to 2014.
- Erradicate extreme poverty and hunger
- 2 Achieve universal primary education
3 Promote gender equality and empower women
4 Reduce child mortality
5 Improve maternal health
6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7 Ensure environmental sustainability
8 Develop a global partneship for development